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1. Abstract:
This website aims to analyze the key events leading to the construction of the Panama Canal, and detail certain environmental and tactical problems that threaten the canal today. The website historically examines why people wanted to construct the Panama Canal and details the efforts that lead to the construction of the canal. The website will also go into detail on how the U.S. supported the liberation of Panama, the decisive strategies it implemented to complete the canal, and a brief overview of events that take us to today's situation with the canal. Finally, the website ends on how environmental problems of deforestation and fresh water loss coincide to threaten the maintenance of the canal as well as its proposal to increase capacity to satisfy rising demands.
2. Description:
There has been a strong desire to have a canal run through the Central American isthmus since the early 16th century when the Spanish dominated the region. They sought to build a canal to achieve an easier route to access their colonies on the Atlantic and Pacific sides. Though, the Spanish government had plans in place no action was taken. Interest intensified to build a canal when gold was discovered in California in 1848. American settlers, looking for land and gold, wanted a quicker route than making the arduous trek across the continental U.S. In 1850, an international expedition composed of Colombia, France, Britain and the U.S. went to explore a claim made by Dr. Edward Cullen on how to cross the Darien Gap, the shortest distance between the tide waters of the Atlantic and Pacific in the Americas. The U.S. expedition, led by Navy Lieutenant Isaac Strain, arrived early and went into the Darien Gap without Cullen's guidance. Most of Strain's men died on the misguided expedition and Strain declared that a canal built through the Darien Gap was "impracticable." (McCullough, 22-23) In 1870, Commander Thomas Selfridge took two expeditions through the Darien Gap and followed Dr. Cullen's trail. While his first expedition faced many hardships getting from the Atlantic side to the Pacific, his expedition made it. Selfridge added insight on how the canal should be built, saying it must be "through-cut," at sea level. (McCullough, 44)
Ferdinand Marie de Lesseps was not an engineer or an architect, he was an entrepreneur extraordinaire. "He had all the nerve, persistence, dynamic energy, a talent for propaganda, a capacity for deception and imagination." (53, McCullough) With his outgoing social manner and his dream firmly in place, de Lesseps made the construction of the Suez Canal happen. He was the chairman and president of the Suez Canal Company and was the charmed guardian for the fortunes of all his shareholders. De Lesseps had fascinating dreams that kept the public enthralled like railways from Paris to Moscow to Peking, or creating an inland sea in the Sahara Desert by breaking through a ridge on Tunisia's Gulf of Gabes and flooding a depression the size of Spain. (57, McCullough) He was able to handle and use money like no other man in his time. Though, in 1875 two things happened. One was the British took control of the Suez Canal, and while he remained president his influence was undercut. The second event that occurred was his decision to take on the project of building a canal between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in the Americas.
In the summer of 1875, de Lesseps declared his desire to build an inter-oceanic canal through the Americas at France's Geographical Society. (58, McCullough) In May of 1879, de Lesseps hosted a meeting with delegations of 22 countries around the world, discussing the tactics on how to build the canal. This delegation, the International Canal Congress, brought suggestions to the floor on the type and location. There was debate over whether the canal should be built in Panama or Nicaragua. When Panama was chosen, the next argument was whether it should be a sea level canal or a lock canal. De Lesseps declared that it would have to be a sea level canal. The problem of a sea level canal was seen right away in terms of the landscape that the canal was to be built on. The source of this problem was the Chagres River. "The absolutely unavoidable problem was the river. Any canal at Panama-a lock canal, a sea-level canal-would have to cross the river at least once. If a sea-level canal were cut through, the result would be a stupendous cataract. The fall of the river into the canal would be 42 feet and this measurement was based on the level of the river in the dry season, when the river was only a few feet deep. In the rainy season the river could be instantly transformed into a torrent, rising ten feet in an hour. The cost of controlling so monstrous a force-if it could be done at all-was beyond reckoning." (76, McCullough)
Nicholas Joseph Adolphe Godin, chief engineer with the French Department of Bridges and Highways, agreed with one of the American delegates that the Chagres River needed to be bridged, though he decided for that to happen there needed to be dams creating two artificial lakes. These lakes would act like the lake in Nicaragua, when the Nicaragua plan was on the table. "There would be two artificial lakes, with flights of locks, like stairs, leading up to the lakes from the two oceans. As Lake Nicaragua was the essential element in the Nicaraguan plan, providing both easy navigation and an abundant source of water for the canal, so his man-made lakes would serve at Panama." (80, McCullough) These dams would allow the Charges River to flow into the lakes, providing an endless source of water for canal use. On May 28, 1879, Panama was pronounced the proper place for the canal and a sea-level canal was the type of canal that would be built.
After de Lesseps returned to France from his three month visit to where the canal would be built, he immediately started fundraising and propagandizing the campaign. De Lesseps and France were confident; they had exceptional engineers and the experience of the Suez Canal. Though, in Panama they had to improvise. Panama was infinitely more challenging than the Suez in every aspect except for the distance and any lesson that Suez provided was useless and a hindrance. The French had to go into a thickly matted jungle that had poisonous reptiles, jaguars and pumas, and tons of insects. The summer of 1881, the French also discovered another deadly obstacle in their canal project; yellow fever and malaria. By the end of 1881 there were 2,000 men at work, including office and technical staff. As the number of laborers increased so did the death rate. By the end of 1883, 1,300 laborers had died throughout the year. While progress was being made laborers would die, at times on average of 200 per month. (McCullough, 160-161)
The rate of sickness only got worse. The worst year for the French regime in Panama was 1885, where up to forty people per day died at times. (McCullough, 172) The death toll was not the only number increasing at a rapid rate, so too was the financial cost. De Lesseps’ efforts to raise the proper money were without comparison in his time. He was truly talented at raising money for his projects and inspired many of his countrymen. Unfortunately, the conditions kept getting more arduous in Panama and de Lesseps had to keep justifying to the French government to give him more money. While his efforts were valiant, on February 4, 1889, the shareholders of the original company assigned a liquidator and the French effort was brought to an end. De Lesseps could only whisper, “It is impossible! It is shameful!” (McCullough, 202)
While de Lesseps’ might have wanted to continue his legacy of the construction of important canals throughout the world, the U.S. had other reasons. President Theodore Roosevelt and Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan were obsessed with naval power. Sea power was necessary to facilitate trade and peaceful commerce, therefore, the country with the greatest sea power would be able to wield great influence on the world stage. Therefore, long coastlines, good harbors, and power over the Suez and the soon-to-be Panama Canal was essential. Mahan’s theories on sea power conflicted with another major geopolitical, that of Sir Halford Mackinder. Mackinder believed that spatial integration and advanced technology on the interiors of continents was essential. (http://www.list.org/~mdoyle/theory.html) Perhaps the U.S. followed Mackinder and Mahan, because before de Lesseps arrived in Panama to begin work on the canal, the U.S. controlled the Panama Railroad that went from Colon, on the Northern Atlantic side, to Panama City on the Southern Pacific side. The railroad in addition to the canal in 1914, allowed the U.S. to control nearly all commodities and ships going between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and vice versa.
The burgeoning U.S. fleet needed to be able to move between the Caribbean and Pacific easier than taking the 18,000 mile route around South America. Secretary of State John Hay went to Colombia to negotiate the terms in buying the region so that the U.S. could start construction in the Colombian province of Panama. The Colombian Congress rejected the offer. Roosevelt who did not think highly of the Colombian government, demonstrated in this quote: "We were dealing with a government of irresponsible bandits," Roosevelt stormed. "I was prepared to . . . at once occupy the Isthmus anyhow, and proceed to dig the canal. But I deemed it likely that there would be a revolution in Panama soon." (http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html)1 The U.S. sent battleships outside of Colon and Panama City to prevent the Colombian army from mobilizing, while the Panamanian rebels declared independence on November 3, 1903. The U.S. guaranteed sovereignty to Panama and paid them $10 million up front in order to have control over the canal zone.
The U.S. would end up building the canal through Panama, opening up on 1914, though not without more deaths from illnesses. The U.S. did though have Dr. Gorgas who had developed treatment for Malaria and Yellow Fever, which were the main source of diseases in the region. Unlike the French who had to improvise, the Americans learned from the mistakes the French engineers made and were not bogged down by Panama’s terrain. The U.S. also shifted the engineering plan from a sea-level canal to a lock canal. In total, the U.S. suffered over 5,000 worker deaths, bringing the total to over 25,000 for the whole project over the thirty year period of the canal’s construction.
Today, the Panama Canal faces a myriad of problems that need to be fixed, should the canal continue to be effective. Deforestation of the rainforest around the canal basin could lead to water loss. Considering the canal will be operating at maximum capacity all the time in 2009, due to increased trade between Asia and the Americas, fresh water used to fill the locks is emptying out at rapid rates. While this is not a concern during the wet season in Panama, during the dry season, between December and April, this could turn into a potential disaster. Deforestation can also hurt the burgeoning tourist industry, should most of the wildlife around the canal basin disappear. The other main problems that the Panama Canal faces today are the amount of ships that travel through the canal each day as well as the size of the ships. Last month, the Panamanian government decided to propose an enlargement program adding two more locks, one on the Atlantic side as well as the Pacific side. These locks will be able to increase the capacity of what the canal can handle, as well as provide enough room so that the post-Panamax ships that cannot fit through the current locks will be able to use the canal. Channels will be widened for these new locks and water reutilization plants will be established. Also, Gatun Lake is set to be deepened to increase water holding capacity. (Third Set of Locks Project, Fact Sheet)
1 .摘要:
2 .描述:
有一个强烈愿望,有一条运河,贯穿中美洲地峡初以来, 16世纪时,西班牙为主的地区.他们试图建立一个以运河,以达到一个更容易的途径进入他们的殖民地,对大西洋和太平洋.虽然,西班牙政府已经准备到位,没有采取任何行动.利息加紧修筑一条运河黄金时,被发现在加州1848 .美国定居,寻找土地和黄金,想要一个便捷的路线比作艰苦跋涉,横跨大陆,美国, 1850年,一个国际探险队组成,哥伦比亚,法国,英国和美国去探索提出的索赔博士爱德华卡伦对如何跨越包括darien差距,最短距离潮流水域是大西洋和太平洋在美洲.美国探险队,由海军中尉艾萨株,提前抵达,并进入了包括darien差距卡伦的指导.大部分菌株的男人就死了误导探险和应变宣称运河建成通过包括darien差距,是"不切实际" ( 2.69月22-23日) 1870年,司令托马斯空降仿真了两次考察,通过包括darien差距,并遵循卡伦博士的线索.而他的第一次探险队遇到了许多困难,从大西洋到太平洋,他的探险了.空降仿真洞察力,对如何运河应建说,它必须透过"禁" ,在海平面. ( 2.69 , 44 )
费迪南德玛丽aranea不是一个工程师或建筑师,他是一个企业家开讲. "他所有的神经,毅力,活力,人才,为宣传,身份诈骗和想象力" ( 53岁, 2.69亿)与卸任的社会态度和梦想坚定地德aranea取得建造苏伊士运河发生.他是董事长兼总裁苏伊士运河公司是8548监护人的命运他的所有股东. 德aranea了迷人的梦羁市民着迷铁路一样,从巴黎到莫斯科到北京,或创造一个内海,在撒哈拉大沙漠中突破了里奇对突尼斯的海湾加贝斯和洪水气压大小西班牙. ( 57 , 2.69 ) ,他能否有效地处理和利用这些钱,没有其他人在他的时候.虽然,在1875年两件事情.其一是英国控制了苏伊士运河,而他仍然是总统,他的影响力被削弱. 第二次发生的事件,他决定采取对工程建设的一条运河与太平洋和大西洋,在美洲.
在夏季, 1875年,德aranea宣布他的愿望,即建立一个跨大洋运河通过在美洲的法国地理学会的会员. ( 58 2.69 ) ,可在1879年,德aranea主持召开了各代表团, 22个国家在世界各地,讨论战术,就如何建设运河.这个代表团,国际运河国会提出建议,向地板上的类型和地点.有争论运河应建于巴拿马和尼加拉瓜.巴拿马时,被选定后,另一个论点是,我们是否应该海平面运河或运河船闸.德aranea宣布,它势必要经历一个海平面运河.问题海平面运河被马上从景观,是运河将建成.这问题的根源是查格雷斯河. "绝对不可避免的,问题是河.任何运河在巴拿马举行了运河船闸,海平面运河将要过河至少一次.如果海平面运河被划破,结果将是一个了不起白内障.秋季河水入运河,将42英尺这种测量是基于一级河流在旱季时,河水只有几英尺深.在雨季河水可瞬间转化成洪流,上升10英尺,在一个小时.成本控制等弥天的力量, 如果它可以做到在所有被清算以后. " ( 76 , 2.69 )
尼古拉约瑟夫夫奥努丁总工程师法文系,桥梁和公路,同意一个美国代表说, 查格雷斯河需要加以弥合,但他决定为做到这一点,需要有水坝形成两个人工湖.这些湖泊会像湖中,尼加拉瓜,在尼加拉瓜计划是放在桌上. " ,将有两个人工湖,同航班的铁锁,像楼梯,导致该湖由两大洋.至于尼加拉瓜湖是必不可少的因素,在尼加拉瓜计划,同时提供简单易用的导航功能和丰富的水源供运河,所以他的人造湖泊将在巴拿马. " ( 80 , 2.69 ) ,这些水坝将使收费河流流入湖泊,提供了无尽的水源使用运河.于1879年5月28日,巴拿马宣告各得其所,为运河和海平面运河类型运河将建成.
经过德aranea返回法国,从他3个月的访问,而运河将建成后,他立即开始筹款和宣传活动. aranea德和法国人的信心;他们有着非凡的工程师和经验丰富的苏伊士运河.虽然,在巴拿马只好凑合.巴拿马是无限的难度大于苏伊士在各个方面,除了距离和任何教训苏伊士提供的是没用的一个障碍.法国已经到了一个厚厚但这就是弱肉强食了有毒的爬行动物,美洲虎和美洲狮,一吨昆虫.夏天, 1881年,法国又发现了另一个致命的障碍,他们在运河工程;黄热病和疟疾.截至1881年共有2000名男子在工作,包括办公室和技术人员.随着一系列的劳动者增加,所以没有死亡率.截至1883年, 1300名华工死于贯穿全年.而正在取得进展,劳动者会死的时候,平均每月200 . ( 2.69 , 160-161 )
率病只有越变越糟.最差的一年,法国政权巴拿马是1885年,有多达40人,每天死亡的时候. ( 2.69 , 172 ) ,死亡人数不仅数量增长快,所以也被财务费用.德aranea '努力提高妥善钱比较,在他的时候.他是真正的天才,在筹钱,为他的计划,并激发他的许多同胞.不幸的是,保存条件越来越艰苦,在巴拿马和de aranea保持了理向法国政府给他更多的钱.而他的努力得到了英勇的,对1889年2月4日,股东对原公司指定清算人和法国努力告一段落.德 aranea只能嘀咕, "这是不可能的!实在可耻! " ( 2.69 , 202 )
而德aranea '也许是想继续他所遗留下来的建筑重要的,运河在世界各地,美国也有其他原因.总统罗斯福和队长阿尔弗雷德马汉厌倦了痴迷的海军实力.海上力量是必要的, 以促进贸易和商业的和平,因此,该国最大的海上力量将能发挥很大的影响力在世界舞台上.因此,有漫长的海岸线,优良的港口,电力超过苏伊士运河和不久将巴拿马运河是必不可少的.马汉的理论,对海权的冲突,与另一家大型缘,爵士mackinder排出. mackinder认为,空间整合和先进技术对内饰大洲是必不可少的. ( http://www.list.org/ ~ mdoyle / theory.html )也许美国走mackinder和马汉,因为在此之前德aranea抵达巴拿马开始工作,对运河,美国控制巴拿马铁路, 1814年结肠癌,对北部大西洋一方,在巴拿马市对南大西洋方面.铁路除了运河, 1914年允许美国几乎控制所有商品和船只来往太平洋和大西洋,反之亦然.
新兴的美国舰队必须能够来往于加勒比海和太平洋地区较容易以 18000英里的路线周围南美洲.国务卿约翰海伊前往哥伦比亚进行谈判的条件,买区域,使美国可以动工,在哥伦比亚省的巴拿马.哥伦比亚国会拒绝了.罗斯福没有瞧得起哥伦比亚政府表明,在此引述他的话: "我们打交道的政府不负责任的土匪, "罗斯福破门. "我当时准备.一下子占据地峡无论如何,并着手挖掘运河.但我认为它有可能将是一场革命,巴拿马很快. " ( http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/joining.html ) 1美国派出战舰之外结肠癌和巴拿马市,以防止哥伦比亚军队调动,而巴拿马叛军宣布独立, 1903年11月3日.美国保证主权巴拿马向他们支付1000万美元的前面,以控制运河区.
美国落得建设运河通过巴拿马,开放的1914年, 虽然没有更多的人死于疾病.美国虽然没有博士gorgas曾研制治疗疟疾和黄热病,其中主要来源地区的传染病.不同于法国人来了一段即兴,美国人的错误中汲取经验,法国工程师了,并没有陷入巴拿马的地形.美国也转向工程计划从海平面运河锁定运河.总起来,美国遭受了5000多名工人死亡,使总数达到 25000多名,为整个工程在过去30年期间,运河的建造.
今天,运河面临着很多问题,需要加以固定,如果运河继续有效.砍伐雨林围绕运河流域可能导致水土流失.考虑到运河将满负荷运行的所有时间,在2009年,由于之间的贸易增加,亚洲和美洲,淡水用来填补门锁是排空出高速率.虽然这不是一个关注的雨季期间,在巴拿马,每逢旱季, 12月至4月,这可能变成一个潜在的灾难.毁林也伤害了蓬勃发展的旅游业,应大多数野生围绕运河流域消失.另一个主要问题是巴拿马运河今天面临数额的船只穿越运河每天以及大小船只.上个月,巴政府已经决定提出的扩大计划,并增加了两个锁,一个是关于大西洋方以及太平洋侧.这些锁,将能够提高能力,有什么运河能处理,以及提供足够的空间,使后巴拿马型船舶不能适合通过这次锁,将能够使用运河.渠道将拓宽为这些新的门锁和中水回用厂,将被建立.同时, gatun湖设为深化,以增加蓄水能力. (第三套船闸工程概况)